Vedic Aryans gradually expanded to eastward direction during Rig-Veda phase. They settled in region between eastern Afghanistan and western U.P. but up to later Vedic they settled in upper Gangetic basin. It is and the basis of Vedic literature as well as PGW sites, we come to know about the geographical expansion of Vedic Aryans.
It is on the basis of Authority of Rig-Veda we find general description about the region of the Rig-Vedic Aryans. The Rig Veda gives reference to 42 rivers among them 19 has been described. It is on the basis of the geographical location of the rivers we can describe about the geographical location of Vedic Aryans. As well as Rig-Veda mention about western tributary to the river Indus. These were Subasto (swat). Susma (sohan), Gomal (Gomati) Kubha (Kabul) and Kruma (Kurrum). This river could be located in Afghanistan. So it appeared that the Rig- Vedic Aryans were settled in region of Afghanistan. Then the Rig-Veda mentions about the river Indus and its five eastern tributary, as well as river Saraswati. Its five tributary were Vitarta (Jhelam), Askini (Chenab), Paruksini (Ravi), Satadru (satluj), Vipasa (Beas). Apart from these Saraswati some time recognized as river Ghaggar. The river Indus its five eastern tributaries as well as the river Saraswati form the part of Saptsandhava region (the land of the seven rivers). The Saptsandhva region was the core region of Rig-Vedic civilization.
The Punjab was the nucleus of Rig-Vedic age in Rig-Veda apart from Saraswati even Drisdwati and the river Apaya have also been mentioned as these three rivers were situated in Rajasthan Likewise the Rig-Veda has described even about the river Marudha Vridna which was associated with Kashmir. Apart from that in the Rig-Veda the mountain Munjawanta has been mention. It was indented with Mountain Himalaya. This phenomena also show that Rig Vedic Aryan having were the familiarity with Region of Kashmir. The term Dhanva has in Rig-Veda. The meaning of Dhanva is desert. It is quite evident that region of Rajasthan further region the Rig-Veda mentioned about the river Ganga, the river Ganga and the rive Sqrayr. Whatever the information have been given by the Rig-Veda are being corroborated partially by PGW sites.
We have an earthed PGW sites near river Satluj in Haryana, in Rajasthan near the Yamuna River and PGW sites. We come to the conclusion that Rig Vedic Aryans were settled in eastern Afghanistan NWFP, Kashmir, and Punjab, a part of Sindh, Haryana, Rajasthan and western U.P. There are certain PGW sites where we have not traced out iron these sites were nagar, katpalan, Dhadheri and Bhagawanpura. These sites should have been associated with Rig Vedic phase. Rig-Vedic Aryans were familiar with the desert During later Vedic phase Vedic Aryans were settled in upper Gangetic basis. We come to know about the Kuru tribes which were the product of assimilation between two Rig-Vedic tribes Bharation and Purus, that they were settled in the upper part of upper Gangetic basis. Likewise on the basis of later Vedic literature we are informed that panchalayas were settled in middle part of the upper Gangetic basis. Later Vedic Aterya Brahmans. According to Aterya Brahmans the Aryans were settled in region between the river Yamuna and Ganga. Then Tateriya Arenyka give greater importance to the region between Yamuna and Ganga it means as Saptsandhna region was the nuclear of Vedic civilization so was the region between Yamuna and Ganga for have Vedic civilization then the end of later Vedic period of civilization drifted further to the east and the side by side of the river Sarayu koshala state was founded, by the side of river Varnwati the state of Kashi was founded and by side of river Sadanira Viseha the state of Videha Madhawa came into existence. A later Vedic text Salpath Brahman gives us the information that the region near river Sadanira was cleared by Videha madhawa through fire. In this way the river Sadanira (Gandak) becomes the eastern boundary. One later Vedic text Atharwaveda for the first time mentioned about the region Magadha and Anga. But these regions remain outside the pale of Aryadom.
Whatever information has given by later Vedic literature is being corroborated by PGW sites as well. We have observed a large no. of PGW sites in upper Gangetic basin. From these sites first evidence of iron was unearthed so this sites should have been associated with later Vedic phase so on the basis of literary and Archaeological evidence are come to know during Rig-Vedic phase the geographical expansion were confined to the region between Easter Afghanistan and river Yamuna. Up to this end of Vedic phase it reached up to the river Sadanira (Gandak) in the eastern.
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